By Andrew McGregor
Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on this planet, yet such a lot army histories deal with it as an insignificant battleground for different nice imperial powers reminiscent of the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian event. It appears on the lives of Egyptian infantrymen scuffling with at domestic and in a foreign country, and exhibits the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and international background for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience remodeled the Muslim international up to now centuries.Beginning with an summary of Egypt's historical and medieval historical past, the e-book then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute strength by means of holding army wisdom out of the snatch of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the country to Europe yet, extra very important, introduced sleek Western affects to Egypt. in the course of the nineteenth century, new hands and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence used to be thwarted through the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighteen Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British cleared the path for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and such a lot nationalist strength within the nation. ultimately, McGregor's final chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the overdue twentieth century.
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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War
The two leading Mamluk Beys, Murad and Ibrahim, attempted to resist the admiral’s army, but were defeated at al-Rahmaniya in the Delta. Ghazi Hassan then undertook a number of administrative reforms, weakening the Mamluks, as well as reimposing social restrictions on the Christians and Jews that had loosened during the rule of ‘Ali Bey. Ghazi Hassan also closed the slave markets of Istanbul to the Mamluk agents, forcing the Mamluks to look elsewhere for replenishments. The Russian presence in the Caucasus was beginning to make its impact felt by greatly reducing the number of slaves available from this region.
Some 3,000 Ottoman troops holding out in the citadel surrendered with the promise that their lives would be spared. After several days without food or shelter, they were led to the beach and massacred by bayonet, the whole process taking several days. As if by divine retribution, plague simultaneously struck the French army. Napoleon’s next target was Acre, the headquarters of Ahmad Pasha alJazzar (“The Butcher”), ruler of Syria. A Bosnian, Ahmad had sold himself into slavery as a youth and eventually found himself in Cairo, where he was trained as a Mamluk and served his master as an assassin.
Again the agonies of the march to al-Rahmaniya were repeated and short-tempered men massacred any villagers who hesitated at meeting their demands for food and water. Finally news came that Murad Bey had assembled his army at Imbaba, a small town on the west bank of the Nile, northwest of Cairo. Ibrahim Bey’s army remained on the east bank of the river, ready to defend the road to Cairo. In the city itself the fellahin were hastily armed with clubs and organized into a militia of last resort. , in the sinister heat of a July afternoon.