By Margaret Akinyi Abira
This research, carried out in Kenya, supplies the 1st perception into the functionality of a developed remedy wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater within the tropics.
The wetland successfully got rid of natural subject, suspended solids, phenols and food. BOD and phenols aid charges are pronounced for the 1st time. layout parameters and guidance for the set-up and upkeep of a full-scale wetland are steered. The research concludes that integrating a full-scale wetland, as a tertiary degree with the present remedy ponds may considerably enhance the standard of water in River Nzoia downstream of the effluent discharge.
This is a worthwhile source e-book for scientists, managers and scholars within the box of wetland ecology, water and environmental management.
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Additional info for A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya UNESCO-IHE PhD
The low BOD: COD ratio (about 1:10) in the final effluent is an indication of such substances. Phenol removal occurred mainly in the aerated ponds (biological stage). A very small proportion was removed at the clarifier indicating that adsorption is a minor removal mechanism. Eckenfelder (2000) reports that phenol removal is mainly microbial-mediated (up to 70 %) with adsorption and other processes accounting for the remainder. , 1991) with higher removal rates (up to 84 %) for specific chlorophenols.
7 Variation in BOD and COD in the effluent treatment system at different sampling points (n=10). Note: Sampling points 1-7 respectively refer to: raw wastewater = 1, overflows from the clarifier = 2, pond 1 (aerated) = 3, pond 2 (aerated) = 4, ponds 3 and 4 (stabilisation) = 5 and 6, and the end of the effluent channel = 7. Data collected from September to December 2002 (n = 6). Additional data collected between July 2003 and June 2005 (n=4) were incorporated. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Sampling point 6 7 Fig.
This reduced the level of residual lignin and chlorinated organic compounds. Despite such controls alternative external measures are necessary to ensure compliance with set regulations especially during low flow in the receiving Nzoia River to protect the ecosystem and public health. The potential of an alternative cost-effective technology such as a constructed wetland in buffering the river will be studied. References Abira M. A, Ngirigacha H. W. A. 2003. Preliminary investigation of the potential of four tropical emergent macrophytes for treatment of pre-treated pulp and papermill wastewater in Kenya.