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March 28, 2017 | Medicine | By admin | 0 Comments

By R. W. Fairbrother (Auth.)

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Standard opacity tubes with a regulated scale of counts for various bacteria are available ; they are prepared by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome and Co. C. in the same given number of fields. C. , the number of bacteria can be determined by simple proportion. By means of repeated counts after seeding bacteria in fluid media it has been found that bacterial multiplication can be divided arbitrarily into four phases—(a) lag, (b) logarithmic, (c) stationary and (d) decline. (a) During the first or lag phase there is no appreciable growth of the bacteria.

In a deep or THE CULTIVATION OF BACTERIA 47 shake culture the distance of the growth from the surface of the medium should be noted. Biochemical Activities. The biochemical tests often utilized to identify bacteria are those concerned with the fermentation of carbohydrates and the breaking down of proteins. The capacity of organisms to split fats, to reduce nitrates and certain dyes, such as méthylène-blue, to produce catalase and to form N H 3 and H 2 S may also be applied in diagnosis. The fermentation of carbohydrates or saccharolytic activity is usually tested by growing the bacteria in peptone water containing 0-5-1 per cent.

Media which favour the growth of certain bacteria are sometimes termed te selective " media. Chocolate agar, which is blood agar heated to 98° C , favours the growth of the influenza bacillus, by converting the haemoglobin into haematin and also by liberating the contents of the corpuscles. The contents of eggs mixed with 10 per cent, by volume of water, inspissated or dried by heating at 70° C , form a useful medium for the growth of tubercle bacilli. This is termed Dorset's egg medium, and its value may be enhanced by the addition of glycerine.

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