By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development
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Additional resources for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development
As the multiple recycling of plutonium in LWRs requires the use of MOX fuel with enriched uranium, Scheme 2a consumes about the same amount of natural uranium. 4). For the same reasons, the additional americium management in Scheme 2b causes the uranium demand to increase to the level of the once-through fuel cycle. e. 40%) saving in the uranium demand. 5. 036 Note: Schemes 3cV1 and 3cV2 operate with depleted uranium. The natural uranium demand of LWR-based schemes can be reduced by incorporating fast reactors into the reactor mix; the reduction corresponds approximately to the percentage of fast reactors in the mix (for Schemes 2c and 2cV with 56% fast reactors, the reduction is 56%).
Other waste forms Advanced reprocessing technologies could separate “trouble-making” elements, such as longlived actinides or I and Tc – known as soluble and easily migrating – in well-know and chemically pure form. This offers a possibility to place them in specially adapted matrix having improved performance as compared to current methods. For example apatites are studied to accommodate iodine, caesium and actinides . Before final disposal, the spent nuclear bundles will be encapsulated into the disposal canisters after having cooled in an interim storage for at least 20-30 years.
The leaching properties of this waste form are generally better then those of cemented waste. g. nitrates) in the waste. , from reinforced concrete, where several drums with bituminised waste are placed in the repository and free space is filled with cement grout or another filling . x Vitrification is industrially used for processing high-level waste from spent fuel reprocessing – sufficient knowledge and operational experience has been accumulated and can be simply transposed into LILW vitrification.