By Carolyn D Berdanier
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Extra resources for Advanced nutrition
Because of the energy lost to ATP formation at this step, this reaction is not reversible. Gluconeogenesis uses another enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), to reverse this step. Glycolysis uses pyruvate kinase to catalyze the reaction. At any rate, pyruvate can now be activated to acetyl CoA, which can enter the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The glycolytic pathway is dependent both on ATP for the initial steps of the pathway, the formation of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and on the ratio of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate, Pi.
The second double bond is then opened, and a hydroxyl group is inserted. In turn, this hydroxyl group is rotated to the l position, and the remaining product can then reenter the β-oxidation pathway. Other unsaturated fatty acids can be similarly oxidized. Each time the double bond is approached, the isomerization and hydroxyl group addition takes place until all of the fatty acid is oxidized. While β-oxidation is the main pathway for the oxidation of fatty acids, some fatty acids undergo α-oxidation so as to provide the substrates for the synthesis of sphingolipids.
12 shows the respiratory chain and the places where energy released by the chain is trapped in the high-energy bond of ATP. OXPHOS is the coupled process used for the production of water using oxygen and the reducing equivalents released by the various metabolic steps in intermediary metabolism. Some of the energy released is trapped in the high-energy bond of ATP while the majority of this energy is released as heat. 12 The respiratory chain showing the points where sufficient energy has been generated to support the synthesis of 1 molecule of ATP from ADP and Pi.