By Dave Goulson
Bumblebees are popular and charismatic bugs, taking place all through a lot of the realm. they're more and more getting used as a version organism for learning a variety of ecological and behavioural suggestions, akin to social association, optimum foraging theories, host-parasite interactions, and pollination. lately they've got develop into a spotlight for conservationists because of mounting proof of diversity contractions and catastrophic extinctions with a few species disappearing from whole continents (e.g. in North America). merely through enhancing our realizing in their ecology will we devise brilliant plans to preserve them. The function of bumblebees as invasive species (e.g. Bombus terrestris in Japan) has additionally turn into topical with the growing to be alternate in advertisement bumblebee nests for tomato pollination resulting in institution of non-native bumblebees in a couple of international locations. because the book of the 1st variation of the publication, there were thousands of study papers released on bumblebees. there's essentially a continual desire for an inexpensive, well-illustrated, and attractive textual content that makes obtainable all the significant advances in figuring out of the behaviour and ecology of bumblebees which were made within the final 30 years.
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Additional resources for Bumblebees: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation, Second Edition
This is also the case in honeybees and many other bee species that have been examined (Mackensen 1951; Woyke 1963, 1979; de Camargo 1979; Kukuk and May 1990). In fact, use of a single sex-determining locus seems to be the norm in most Hymenoptera (Cook and Crozier 1995). The fewer loci involved, the more likely it is that diploid males will occur. Diploid males appear to have very low fertility in bumblebees (Duchateau and Mariën 1995). In honeybees, diploid male larvae are consumed by workers, but in bumblebees they are reared to adulthood (Plowright and Pallet 1979; Duchateau et al.
It’s Eric the half a bee! Monty Python (1976) The sex of Hymenoptera is determined in an unusual way, using a system known rather dauntingly as parthenogenetic arrhenotoky (Crozier and Pamilo 1996). As we have seen, fertilized eggs develop into diploid females (they get one copy of each chromosome from each parent, as in most diploid organisms), while unfertilized eggs develop into haploid males (they only have one copy of each chromosome). Actually, it is slightly more complex than this. In many Hymenoptera (including bumblebees), individuals are male if they are homozygous at one or more sex-determining loci (Paxton et al.
Müller and Schmid-Hempel (1992b) monitored nests of B. lucorum for attack by Psithyrus and removed any Psithyrus females within 3 days of their arrival. Nests that had been brieﬂy attacked produced signiﬁcantly more males, suggesting that even this very brief suppression of queen dominance can lead to signiﬁcant worker reproduction. In contrast, if Psithyrus remain in the nest, they suppress worker ovarian development to a similar degree to an undisturbed queenright colony (Vergara et al. 2003).