Download Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design by Peter K. Kitanidis, Perry L. McCarty PDF

March 28, 2017 | Pollution | By admin | 0 Comments

By Peter K. Kitanidis, Perry L. McCarty

This quantity is intended to supply the practitioner with info at the common blending procedures happening in aquifers in addition to to explain easy concepts that may be applied to reinforce blending particularly situations. for instance, in terms of blending miscible drinks, you will accelerate blending within the formation by means of manipulating the circulate akin to by using recirculation wells. in addition, a lot of the blending might be completed in part inside of recirculation wells themselves, the place infected water is admixed with ingredients, risky items should be got rid of via a vapor mass exchanger, and so on. hence, including blending wells can considerably raise the functionality of the supply and combining method and accelerate the method of remediation.

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Here, design principles are addressed, including how to estimate (mostly with simpler models or “screening tools”) travel times, reactor volumes, flow-through rates, and other useful design parameters. Covered also are the challenges of operating and maintaining injection-extraction wells, the non-uniform distribution of biomass, plugging issues, and strategies such as pulsing. Case studies are provided. Chapter 7 has objectives similar to Chap. 6, but this time the use of reactive barrier walls is covered.

Others among the list of frequently found organic chemicals are degradation products of these four chlorinated solvents, including 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE), 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). Thus, 8 of the 11 most frequently found organic chemicals are chlorinated solvents themselves and their degradation products. The second group of organic chemicals includes benzene and toluene, the third and fourth most frequently found on the list. These aromatic hydrocarbons are the more soluble components of gasoline that partition into groundwater from gasoline spills.

A similar strategy would be to deliver degradable substrates together with additives or co-substrates that stop or minimize substrate degradation during delivery periods. Degradation would proceed as the concentration of the inhibitor or co-substrate falls due to dilution or degradation. Research is needed to identify and test useful additives and co-substrates that might be appropriate for this case. Another innovative idea is “trap-and-treat” – temporarily retarding the movement of contaminants through reactive zones to enhance their contact time with the agents of degradation/detoxification.

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