By di C. Agostinelli (auth.), Giovanni Colombo (eds.)
C. Agostinelli: Sul problema delle aurore boreali e il moto di un corpuscolo elettrizzato in presenza di un dipolo magnetico.- G. Colombo: advent to the speculation of earth’s movement approximately its heart of mass.- E.M. Gaposchkin: The movement of the pole and the earth’s elasticity as studied from the gravity box of the earth via man made earth satellites.- I.I. Shapiro: Radar astronomy, normal relativity, and celestial mechanics.- V. Szebehely: purposes of the constrained challenge of 3 our bodies in area research.- G.A. Wilkins: The research of the statement of the satellites of Mars.
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3). Let us expose a crystal K to an X-ray beam of wavelength λ and let s0 be the unit vector in the direction of the primary beam. Diffraction in the direction of a further unit vector s happens if and only if a lattice plane L with its normal vector h has a special orientation with respect to the primary beam, so that the three vectors, h, s0, and s satisfy the equation h= s − s0 s s or h = − 0 . 8) Since two vectors of length 1/λ appear in eq. 8) it is very convenient to consider a sphere of radius 1/λ around the crystal in its center, being called the Ewald sphere.
Dx Hence x = 3/μ. 30) is applicable only if μ >> 30 cm–1. Otherwise the collimator size is the more restrictive limit. The power dissipation of modern sealed X-ray tubes varies from 2 to 3 kW with a stationary anode. 21), the full capacity can be utilized by choosing the current as high as possible. 0 kW, voltage V and current i are chosen as follows. 21) we obtain a best voltage V = 4 × VK = 36 kV. Setting i = 55 mA we have the best condition for the optimum intensity of X-radiation. In practical work, i should be chosen smaller, on the one hand to avoid an overcharge of the tube, and on the other hand the lifetime of the rather expensive tube can be extended.
The four tube windows therefore provide two line and two square foci from each X-ray tube. For single crystal diffraction, only the square focus is used. The two line foci can be used for powder diffraction experiments. Since circular collimators are used to limit the incident beam, we always have a circular X-ray beam with a diameter less than b at the crystal. Because the diffracted intensity depends on the crystal volume, care has to be taken that the largest dimensions of the crystal are less than the diameter of the primary beam at the crystal.